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Precision air conditioning, air conditioning


Carrier 19XR04012202, ISM boot module CESO130037, CEPL130259-04-R brand new.jpgCarrier-NRCP-Option-Board-32GB500062-CEPL130336-01.jpgIn recent years, there has been a rapid growth trend in the field computer room, network management center, mobile base station, and small computer room. The construction of the computer room has also appeared in a small-sized computer room. However, the development of the small computer room has not been brought to this direction. The environmental refrigeration system has completely changed. The previous small computer room cooling has always been the popular comfort air conditioner. Nowadays, the small computer room has started to use the computer room precision air conditioner.

According to relevant statistics, about 100,000 new computer rooms are built each year in China, 80% of which are attributed to medium and small computer rooms with an area of less than 100 square meters. Most of these computer rooms use general comfort air conditioners, and the computer room cannot use ordinary air conditioners. Because ordinary air conditioners only supply the user with suitable temperature and humidity can not be controlled, the electronic equipment inside the equipment room usually has computer equipment such as servers, switches, optical transceivers, and uninterruptible power supply UPS, etc., which will transfer heat and convection. Radiation sends heat to the equipment room. This heat only forms an increase in the temperature inside the equipment room. If the humidity in the equipment room is too humid or too boring, the impact on the electronic equipment in the equipment room is extremely arrogant. The heat dissipation in the equipment room is attributed to the steady-state heat source. Uninterrupted operation throughout the year, which requires an uninterrupted air conditioning system, which also has high requirements for the power supply of air-conditioning equipment. It is not only required to have dual-channel mutual power investment, but also to ensure the air conditioning of important computer equipment. The system should also have a generator set as a backup power source, so it must be installed. Dense air conditioning, supplying the room with a constant temperature and humidity environment. In addition to constant temperature and humidity, the factors that require precision air conditioning in the equipment room are:

   Reason one: high reliability

   (1) The function of the control system is closely related to the overall function of the air conditioning system. The highly precise control system ensures the reliability of the air conditioner in the computer room.

   Many computer room air conditioner manufacturers have specifically announced a series of manipulators as part of the air conditioning system. The use of electronic controls or microcomputer control is now very common. Some companies have now applied fuzzy control skills to computer room air conditioners. In the system. For example, it is possible to record the running time of each of the primary components and perform fault diagnosis;

   Managers can also set parameters for active protection. The operating parameters and alarm records can be saved even in the event of a power outage. The system can store 30 pre-history alarms. In addition, the excellent human-computer interaction interface allows managers to quickly and easily use the system. Give priority to it.

   (2) The adaptability of the grid of the precision air conditioner in the engine room is also an important guideline for judging its function.

   Take small mobile rooms such as mobile base stations and field computer rooms as an example. Generally, they are in a harsh grid environment, and the grid voltage is shaken a lot. This requires a corresponding grid system with good grid adaptability. For example, the ultra-wide input voltage planning is adopted, and the voltage fluctuation scale is allowed to be ±20; the phase loss protection function and the phase sequence detection function are combined, the high and low voltage active monitoring and protection functions are used; and the phase sequence misalignment active adjustment function is provided, and the active call can be activated. . This kind of planning ensures that the refrigeration system operates efficiently and reliably in a harsh grid environment.

   (3) The nature of the small computer room has determined that it has the same high reliability requirements for the air conditioning system.

   In general, the cooling problem has little effect, and the low reliability of the computer room air conditioner will make the entire equipment room and even the entire network safe. Therefore, in planning, the reliability of the air conditioner for the computer room is much higher than that of the general air conditioner. In the aspects of the structure and control system planning and production, and the composition of the air conditioning system, a series of ensuring methods are adopted. According to the 365 days per year, the operation plan is 24 hours a day. And each product has passed strict factory tests to ensure that the equipment will operate without failure for many years.

   (4) A computer room attaches importance to reliability

   For 8760 hours of operation throughout the year, it requires reliable parts and excellent control system for air conditioning in the computer room. Usually, the computer room is mostly N+1 backup. If one air conditioner has a problem, other air conditioners can receive all the systems immediately.

   Reason two: precise control

   Small computer room, because of its small size, small equipment, and low heat, the general comfort air conditioner seems to be able to control the temperature within a certain scale, "reaching" the effect of cooling, but in detail, temperature control is only In addition to the environmental conditioning of the equipment room, in addition to temperature control accuracy, humidity conditioning, air filtration, etc. is also an important policy requirements of the computer room environment for the refrigeration system.

   The general comfort air conditioning is planned for the home environment or the general working environment and cannot meet the above requirements.

   (1) Humidity

   In terms of humidity control, the comfort air conditioner has no humidification function at all, and can only perform dehumidification, so humidity control cannot be performed. In the equipment room, if the humidity is too high, it will condense into water mist or even water droplets. If the humidity is too low, static electricity will occur. These two conditions are very unfavorable for the operation of the equipment. For machine room-specific air conditioners, humidity control is an important parameter, and its humidity control accuracy is generally ±5. The high ventilation power can also keep the humidity stable, so that the relative humidity is shaken and controlled within 50%±5% RH, which ensures the operation of the equipment in the equipment room.

   (2) Temperature

   In terms of temperature control accuracy, because the comfort air conditioner has only 5-15 air changes per hour, the temperature adjustment accuracy is ±3-5 °C, which can satisfy the temperature conditioning requirements of the general environment, but the temperature in the equipment room The field is unevenly distributed. This conditioning accuracy can only ensure the temperature of the air conditioner near the end device. In comparison, the precision air conditioner in the engine room is 30-60 times per hour. The high power ventilation capacity enables the air conditioning system to Induction of the temperature of the entire machine room shakes, ensuring that the temperature adjustment accuracy of the machine room is maintained at about 1 °C, and then the overall cooling of the machine room is ensured.

   (3) Cleanliness

   In addition to temperature and humidity, the room has strict requirements on the cleanliness of the air. Dust and corrosive gases in the air can seriously damage the life of electronic components, causing problems such as poor contact and short circuit. The general comfort air conditioner The filter can't reach the cleanliness requirements of the equipment room, and the precision air conditioner in the equipment room has high-efficiency air filtration capacity. It can dedust and filter the circulating air according to relevant regulations, so that the machine room can ensure the cleanliness of the demand, and then ensure the safe operation of the equipment.

   (4) High precision planning

   The precision air conditioner in the equipment room not only can adjust the temperature, but also can adjust the humidity, and the accuracy is very high. Computers, especially servers, have very high demands on temperature and humidity. If the changes are too large, the computer's calculations may present errors, which is very embarrassing to the service provider, especially in the banking and communications professions. Today's precision air conditioning requests in the equipment room are usually ±2 °C in temperature accuracy and ±5% humidity accuracy. High-precision engine room precision air conditioners can reach temperature accuracy of ±0.5 °C and humidity accuracy of ±2%.

   Reason three: high efficiency and energy saving

   Because the heat generated by the machine room is very large, some IDC engine room heat reaches more than 30kw/m2, so it is all year round.

   One point that needs to be mentioned here is that the precision air conditioner in the engine room also has a heater, which is only distributed during dehumidification. The air temperature should be relatively low for dehumidification, to prevent the room temperature from falling too fast (the room temperature change does not exceed 1 °C every 10 minutes, the humidity does not exceed 5% per hour), in terms of energy efficiency, general comfort The air conditioner obviously cannot compare with the air conditioner of the computer room. From the sensible heat ratio point of view, the sensible heat ratio of the air conditioner for the computer room is as high as 80%-90%, that is to say, 90% of the power is used to cool the equipment, as long as about 10% of the energy consumption is used for moderate dehumidification;

   The sensible heat ratio of the comfort air conditioner is 60%-70%, and 30%-40% of the power is used for excessive dehumidification. This situation is simple, resulting in low humidity in the equipment room, not only the static electricity of the equipment, but also a great waste of electrical energy.

   From the perspective of energy efficiency, the energy efficiency ratio of the industrial grade compactor used in the engine room-specific air conditioner is as high as 3.3 or more, and the energy efficiency ratio of the compact air conditioner used in the comfort air conditioner is about 2.9, which is much lower than that of the computer room.

   Green environmental protection, energy saving and consumption reduction have become the guidelines of various industries. Therefore, it is also an important consideration in the construction of data centers or computer rooms. In the meantime, the refrigeration system has received more attention. According to a research report submitted by the US Environmental Protection Agency to the US Congress, the refrigeration system accounts for about 40% of the total electricity consumption in the data center.

   IDC's research also shows that in the data center, the cooling system consumes more power than the server itself. When the server multiplies, the supporting power consumption will increase exponentially. Therefore, the refrigeration system uses high-efficiency and energy-saving products, and it is of great significance to save energy and reduce consumption in the data center or computer room.

   The query indicates that there are many problems in the computer room using comfortable air conditioners. The first performance is the high failure rate of electronic equipment in the equipment room and the large amount of protection of the air conditioning equipment itself. The reason for these problems is that the planning specifications for comfort air conditioners are not suitable for the temperature and humidity requirements of the equipment room, and are not suitable for high reliability and green and efficient requirements. As a special environment, small computer rooms should be protected by professional air conditioners in the computer room. More should complete the refrigeration field specialization.

   Precision air conditioning, air conditioning, heating, humidification, dehumidification

   (1) Scale of use

   The computer room precision air conditioner is widely used in high-precision environments such as computer room, program-controlled switch room, satellite mobile communication station, large medical equipment room, laboratory, test room, precision electronic equipment production workshop, etc. Various objectives such as cleanliness and airflow distribution have high requirements. It is necessary to ensure the precision air conditioning equipment in a dedicated computer room that operates safely and reliably 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.

   (2) Large sensible heat

   The mainframe and peripherals of the equipment in the equipment room, servers, switches, optical transceivers and other computer equipment and power assurance equipment, such as UPS power supply, will send heat to the equipment room by means of heat transfer, convection and radiation. These heats only constitute the equipment room. The increase in temperature is due to sensible heat. The heat dissipation of a server cabinet is several kilowatts to ten kilowatts per hour. If it is a device blade server, the heat dissipation will be higher. The heat dissipation of large and medium-sized accounting room equipment is about 400W/m2, and the data center with higher installed density may reach 600W/m2 or more. The sensible heat ratio in the equipment room can be as high as 95%.

   (3) Small amount of latent heat

   Do not change the temperature in the equipment room, but only change the moisture content of the air in the equipment room. This part of the heat is called latent heat. There is no dehumidification equipment in the equipment room. The latent heat comes mainly from the operators and the outdoor air. The large and medium-sized computer room usually adopts the management mode of the human-machine separation. The enclosure structure of the equipment room is well sealed. The fresh air is generally processed after the temperature and humidity pre-treatment. Therefore, the potential heat of the equipment room is small.

   (4) Large air volume and small coma

   The heat of the equipment is transmitted to the equipment room through conduction and radiation. The heat generated in the dense area of the equipment gathers. In order to make the temperature and humidity of each area in the equipment room uniform, and the control is within the agreed base and shake scale, the demand is larger. The air volume takes away the excess heat. In addition, the potential heat in the equipment room is less, generally no dehumidification is required. When the air passes through the evaporator of the air conditioner, it is not required to fall below the zero temperature. Therefore, the temperature difference between the air supply and the enthalpy difference is small. The demand for large air supply.

   (5) Uninterrupted operation, cooling all year round

   The heat dissipation of the equipment in the equipment room is attributed to the steady-state heat source. It runs continuously throughout the year. This requires an uninterrupted air-conditioning assurance system. It also has high requirements for the power supply of air-conditioning equipment. It is not only required to have dual-channel mutual power investment. And the air conditioning system for ensuring important computer equipment should also have a generator set as a backup power source. The long-term steady-state heat source constitutes refrigeration even in the winter machine room, especially in the south. In the northern region, if refrigeration is still needed in winter, when selecting an air conditioning unit, the demand should consider the condensing pressure of the unit and other related problems, and other factors can increase the outdoor cold air intake to achieve the purpose of energy saving.

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